we're looking at
MS inside and out

We are digging deeper and exploring different options that may hold the next big advancement in the science of MS—right now.

TAKING A CLOSER LOOK AT THE
KEY PLAYERS IN MS1-4

Understanding how the innate and adaptive  immune systems communicate through different players may help deepen our understanding of what causes MS and what perpetuates the disease. Lymphocytes play a central role, with B and T cell subsets each contributing to the disease in their own way.1

 

 

WHAT PERPETUATES THE
NEUROINFLAMMATION PROCESS IN MS?

The lymphocyte subsets below are considered to be  key drivers of continued neuroinflammation in MS. Elaborate communication between lymphocytes activates and perpetuates the inflammatory cascade. Lymphocytes do not act alone; they use crosstalk to stimulate each other. Clonal expansion occurs in the periphery, and on re-exposure to antigens, memory B and T cells respond more robustly and rapidly.5-8

 

 

Naive B cell

Cells, that when activated by antigen and helper T cells, differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells which produce and secrete antibodies with a unique antigen-binding site7

Memory B cell

Cells that form from naive B cells on initial antigen exposure and—when activated by the antigen with the aid of a helper T cell—more rapidly proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells9

Naive helper T cell

Type of T cell that can activate a B cell once it is activated by an antigen-presenting cell7

CD8 cytotoxic naive T cell

Cytotoxic cells that will assist in the elimination of antigenic cells, but have not yet been exposed to antigen10

Memory helper T cell

Helper T cells, once activated by antigen-presenting cells, that will activate the immune response more rapidly upon antigen re-exposure9

CD8 cytotoxic memory T cell

Memory T cells that respond robustly and quickly on re-exposure to antigens by rapidly re-expressing effector molecules, such as cytokines and proteins of the lytic machinery10

DIGGING DEEPER INTO THE
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF MS

The pathophysiological processes that lead to MS can be described in 4 phases: loss of self-tolerance, first wave of penetration of the blood-brain barrier, second larger wave of leukocytic invasion of the CNS, and neuroinflammation.3

 

Exploring the complexity of
lymphocyte activity in MS

JOIN THE CONVERSATION

WHICH PLAYERS DO YOU THINK ARE MOST RESPONSIBLE FOR PERPETUATING INFLAMMATION IN MS?4,9.10

(SELECT ONE)

POLL RESULTS

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Memory B and T cells
Naive B cells
Naive helper T cells

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REFERENCES

1. Salou M, Nicol B, Garcia A, Laplaud DA . Involvement of CD8+ T cells in multiple sclerosis. Front Immunol. 2015;6: 604. 2. Bittner S, Ruck T, Wiendl H, Grauer OM, Meuth SG. Targeting B cells in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: from pathophysiology to optimal clinical management. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2017;10:51-66. 3. Baker D, Marta M, Pryce G, Giovannoni G, Schmierer K. Memory B cells are major targets for effective immunotherapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis. EBioMedicine. 2017;16:41-50. 4. Li R, Rezk A, Healy LM, et al. Cytokine-defined B cell responses as therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis. Front Immunol. 2015;6:626. 5. Paroni M, Maltese V, De Simone M, et al. Recognition of viral and self-antigens by TH1 and TH1/TH17 central memory cells in patients with multiple sclerosis reveals distinct roles in immune surveillance and relapses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;140:797-808. 6. Mitsdoerffer M, Peters A. Tertiary lymphoid organs in central nervous system autoimmunity. Front Immunol. 2016;7:451. 7. Dalakas M. B cells as therapeutic targets in autoimmune neurological disorders. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008;4:557-567. 8. Pikor N, Prat A, Bar-Or A, Gommerman J. Meningeal tertiary lymphoid tissues and multiple sclerosis: a gathering place for diverse types of immune cells during CnS autoimmunity. Front Immunol. 2016;6:1-7. 9. Fan X, Jin T, Zhao S, et al. Circulating CCR7+ ICOS+ memory T follicular helper cells in patients with multiple sclerosis. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0134523. 10. Liu G, Fang LB, Hjelmström, Gao XG. Increased CD8+ central memory T cells in patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2007;13:149-155.